Saturday, April 21, 2018

B.Tech S6 Model Question Paper VLSI Electronics & Communication Engineering

VI Semester B.Tech Degree Examination - 2012
Model Question Paper

Time:3 hrs                                                                                                   max.marks : 100


Answer all questions. Each question carries 2 marks

1. Differentiate between positive and negative photoresists.
2. State Fick’s law of diffusion.
3. A proximity printer operates with a 20μm mask to wafer gap and a wavelength of 250nm.
Find the minimum linewidth that can be obtained.
4. Define threshold voltage. Write the expression for threshold voltage under body bias
5. Explain channel length modulation. How is it incorporated in the current relationship of
MOS transistor?
6. Explain the junction capacitances associated with a MOSFET.
7. Illustrate a case of progressive transistor sizing to reduce propagation delay in CMOS
8. Pseudo NMOS is a ratioed logic. Justify.
9. How the test patterns are minimized by modeling the circuit with independent logic
10. Consider a DRAM cell with Cs=50fF and Cbit=8Cs. Assuming a maximum voltage of
Vs=Vmax=2.5V on the storage capacitor, what is the final voltage during a logic 1 read
operation. (2x10 = 20 marks)


Answer one full question from each module


11. a) Portray the different steps involved in an n well process for CMOS. (12)
b) With neat sketches, explain Czochralsky method of wafer processing. List the
advantages and disadvantages of the process. (8)


12. a) Derive Deal Grove model of oxidation. (10)
b) With the aid of neat diagram explain ion implantation process (10)

13. a)Derive the current relationship in a MOS transistor in deep triode and saturation
regions. (12)
b) Define flatband voltage. Obtain an expression for threshold voltage of a MOS
transistor in terms of flat band voltage and body effect parameter. (8)


14. Elucidate the short channel effects in MOS with neat diagrams. (20)

15. Derive expressions for noise margin (NML and NMH) and switching threshold of a CMOS
inverter. (20)


16. a) Design a 14 bit square root carry select adder. Calculate the worst case delay. (10)
b) Explain the function of a 4 bit multiplier with block diagram. Write down the
expression for maximum delay. (10)


17. a) Draw the CMOS implementation of a NOR ROM cell to store 4 words of 4bits which
are as follows 1011, 1110, 1101 and 1001. (10)
b) Design a regular PLA structure using MOS to implement the function
Y1= X4, Y2=X1X3+X2 X4 and Y3=X1X2+X2X3 (10)
18. a) Explain the working of a 1 transistor DRAM cell with the help of timing diagrams.(10)
b) Explain the methods of design for testability
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B.Tech S6 Model Question Paper Digital Communication Electronics & Communication Engineering



Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks : 100

(Answer all questions. Each question carries 2 marks. )
1. Explain Aliasing in digital communication.
2. Obtain the Nyquist rate and Nyquist interval for the following
(a) g(t)=sinc(200t)
(b) g(t)=sinc(200t)+sinc2

3. Calculate the amplitude distortion due to aperture effect for a flat
top sampled system, which samples a signal of maximum frequency
2 Hz with 6 Hz sampling frequency. The duration of pulse is 0.2 sec.
4. Distinguish between DPCM & ADPCM?
5. Explain the properties of matched filters.
6. Draw the signal space diagram of coherent BPSK system.
7. The direct frequency spread spectrum communication system has
the following parameters. Data sequence bit duration=8.096μs, PN
chip duration = 2μs. Eb/No = 10 for an average probability of error
less than 10-6. Calculate the processing gain and jamming margin.

8. Explain how PN sequences are generated.
9. What are Gold codes?
10.What are the different characterizations of frequency hopping?


(Answer any one question from each Module. )

Module – I

a. Explain Differential PCM and derive the expression for the SNR of a
PCM system. (10 Marks)
b. Describe Delta Modulation with suitable diagrams and equations.
( (10 Marks)

a. The signal m(t) = 6sin(2πt) volts is transmitted using a 4-bit binary
PCM system. The quantizer is of the midrise type, with a step size
of 1 volt. Sketch the resulting PCM wave for one complete cycle of
the input. Assume a sampling rate of four samples per second, with
samples taken at t=±1/8, ±3/8, ±5/8,......, seconds.
(12 marks)
b. Explain the working of an ADPCM transmitter and receiver.
(8 marks)

Module – II

a. Derive the Nyquist criterion for distortionless transmission.
(10 Marks )
b. Explain the significance of LMS algorithm. (10 marks)

a. The binary data stream 011100101 is applied to the input of a
modified duobinary system. Construct the modified duobinary
coder output and corresponding receiver output,
i. Without a precoder
ii. With use of a precoder in the transmitter. (12 marks)
b. Explain briefly baseband M-ary PAM transmission. (8 marks)

Module – III

a. Explain Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure. (10
b. Describe the conversion of the continuous AWGN channel
into a vector channel. (10 Marks)

a. A pair of signals si(t) and sk(t)have a common duration T, show
that the inner product of this pair of signals is given by

si( t ) sk (t ) dt = si
.sk .

(12 Marks)

b. Describe Differential Phase - shift keying. (8 Marks)

Module – IV

a. Write a note on Rake Receiver in CDMA. ( 10 Marks)
b. Explain different types of Multiple access techniques.
(10 Marks)

a. Derive the expression for processing gain of MFSK. A fast
frequency hopping MFSK system has the following

parameters. Number of bits per MFSK symbol=8, number of
hops per MFSK symbol = 8. Calculate the processing gain.
(10 Marks )
b. Write a note on Pseudo-Noise sequences. (10 Marks )
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Friday, April 20, 2018

KTU B.Tech S6 Model Questions Mobile Computing[Elective] Computer Science

Model question paper

Seventh Semester B Tech Degree Examination

13.705.3 MOBILE COMPUTING (Elective I) (F)

Time : 3 Hours Marks : 100


Answer all questions. Each question carries 4 marks

1. List and explain GSM services.
2. What are the benefits of Spread Spectrum Systems?
3. Compare between IEEE 801.11 and HiperLAN2.
4. Explain agent advertisement in Mobile IP.
5. Why has a scripting language been added to WML? How can this language
help saving bandwidth and reducing delay ?


Answer any one question from each module. Each question carries 20 marks.

Module 1

6 a) Explain differences between GSM, GPRS and UMTS. (10)
b) Draw a neat diagram of GSM architecture and explain with details of
various types of interfaces. (10)

7 a) Explain various types of antennas and their radiation pattern. (8)
b) What are the main problems faced in signal propagation? (12)

Module 2

8 a) Explain Bluetooth protocol stack with neat diagram (12)

b) Explain in detail about digital video broadcasting. (8)


9 a) Explain how the power management is done in IEE 802.11 infrastructure
and adhoc networks. (10)
b) Describe the mobile satellite systems (LEO,GEO and MEO). (10)

Module 3

10 a) What is the basic purpose of DHCP? Name the entities of DHCP. (10)
b) Explain standard routing protocols for mobile communication. (10)


11 a) List the various entities of mobile IP and describe data transfer from a
mobile node to a fixed node and vice versa. (10)
b) Explain the various encapsulation methods used in Mobile IP. (10)

Module 4

12 a) Draw a neat diagram of WAP architecture and explain in detail. (10)
b) Explain how mobile TCP improves the TCP performance in wireless and
mobile environment. (10)


13 Explain
a) WAP 2.0 (5)
b) WML Script (5)
c) WDP (5)
d) WTLS (5)
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KTU B.Tech S6 Model Questions Computer Networks Computer Science

Model Question Paper



Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks : 100

Part A ( Answer all questions)

1. Give the differences between Computer Networks and Distributed Systems.
2. A bit string 0111101111101111110, needs to be transmitted at the data link layer.
What is the string actually transmitted after bit stuffing?
3. What is the relevance of Duration field in an 802.11 frame?
4. A network on the internet has a subnet mask of What is the maximum
number of hosts it can handle?
5. DNS uses UDP instead of TCP. If a DNS packet is lost, there is no automatic
recovery. Does this cause a problem, and if so, how it is solved?

(5 x 4 = 20)

Part B (Answer one full question from each module)

Module I

I. (a) Discuss the functions of data link layer in a computer network. (10)
(b) Describe the role of network layer and transport layer in TCP/IP model. (10)

II. (a) Identify the layers in OSI reference model and illustrate their functions. (10)
(b) Discuss about the design issues of computer networks. (10)

Module II

III. (a)The following character encoding is used in a data link protocol:
A: 01000111; B: 11100011; FLAG: 01111110; ESC: 11100000

Show the bit sequence transmitted (in binary) for the four-character frame: A
B ESC FLAG when each of the following framing methods are used:
i. Character Count
ii. Flag bytes with byte stuffing
iii. Starting and ending flag bytes, with bit stuffing. (12)
(b) Discuss about the structure and working of Switched Ethernet. (8)
IV. Describe CSMA/CD protocol in Ethernet. (20)

Module III

V. (a) Discuss about the techniques to improve QoS in internetworking. (10)
(b) Illustrate the routing procedure in mobile networks. (10)
VI. Illustrate the working of OSPF and BGP. (20)

Module IV

VII. (a). Give the format of TCP header and discuss the relevance of various fields (12)
(b). How transport layer connection is established in TCP? Illustrate with state
diagrams. (8)
VIII. (a) Explain the features of H.323 and SIP (12)
(b) How name servers are managed in DNS? (8)
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KTU B.Tech S6 Model Questions Compiler Design CS

Model Question Paper

Sixth Semester B.Tech Degree Examination


Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:100

(Answer all questions)

1. Symbol table is necessary for compiler construction. Justify your statement with example.
2. For ∑={a,b}, build a Finite Automata that accepts only those words that do not end with ba.
3. Explain ambiguity in grammars. Consider the grammar

Show that the grammar is ambiguous by constructing two different leftmost derivations for the sentence
4. Explain the pros and cons of operator precedence parsing.
5. Write the syntax directed translation for “do-while” statement in C.

(5*4=20 marks)


(Answer any one full question from each module)


6. a) Explain the output for each phase of compiler for the following character streams.
i) T1=T2*3+2*6.3+2*T2, where T1 and T2 are integers
ii) if (a
b) Consider the grammar
S → (L) | a
L → L, S | S
i)What are the terminals, non-terminals and start symbol in the given grammar?
ii)Find parse tree for the following sentences:
i) (a,a)
ii) (a, ((a,a),(a,a))) (4)
c) Explain the concept of compiler writing tools. (4)


7. a) List any four issues in compilation. (4)
b) Consider the context free grammar
S→ SS+|SS*|a
And the strings i) aa+a*

I) Give the leftmost derivation of the strings
II) Give the rightmost derivation of the strings
III) Give a parse tree for the strings
IV) Is the grammar ambiguous or not? Justify your answer. (8)
c) Explain the front end of a compiler with a neat diagram. Show the output of different phases in front
end for the following input: a[index]=b*2.0 (8)


8. a) Consider a language that consists of a single email address. An email id is a USERNAME followed by
@ character followed by a HOSTNAME. A USERNAME is the combination of one or more alphanumeric
characters and a HOSTNAME is composed of two or more DOMAINS separated by the character dot (.). A
DOMAIN is a sequence of one or more characters.
i) Draw a DFA for this language.
ii) Write a regular expression to recognize the language.
iii) Recast your language as a CFG using the non terminal EMAIL as the start symbol. (12)
b) Write an algorithm for finding the ɛ-closure of all states of a ɛ-NFA. (8)


9. a) Draw a Finite Automata for a language which consists of the following lexemes:
<,<=, ==, >, >=, != ,( , ), +,-,*,/,=,semicolon, identifier and digits. Comments, which begins in /* and end
with a */ and blanks should be ignored by the scanner. (12)
b) Write the algorithm to minimize the number of states in a DFA. Apply this algorithm to
minimize the states of the following DFA: (8)
State Inputs

Start A B C
Accept E B C

10. a)Construct a predictive parsing table for the following grammar.


Check whether the grammar is LL(1) or not. Justify your answer. (12)
b) State the error recovery methods in operator precedence parser. (8)

11. a) Construct SLR parsing table for the following grammar

F→(E)|id (10)
b) Construct the operator precedence parse table for the following grammar and show its action for the
input string ccbab. (10)


12. a)Explain the syntax directed translation scheme for array references (12)
b)Write the three address code for the following statements (8)


13. a) Write quadruples, triples and indirect triples for the expression
-(a+b)*(c+d)-(a+b+c) (8)
b) Explain the concept of backpatching and write the syntax directed translation scheme for Boolean
expressions with and without back patching
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KTU B.Tech S6 Model Questions Design and Analysis of Algorithms CS

B.Tech Degree Examination

Model Quesion Paper


Time: 3 Hrs                                                             Marks: 100

Answer all questions
1. Why is more emphasis given to minimize the execution time of an algorithm rather than
the space requirement of an algorithm or computer program most of the time.
2. Demonstrate using a suitable example as to why raw computational power alone cannot
be a substitute for efficient algorithm design.
3. Explain master method for solving recurrence relations.
4. Why are height balanced trees used instead of ordinary binary search trees?
5. What sorting algorithm would you prefer to use if you know that most of your input are
already sorted? Why?(5X4=20 Marks)


Answer any one full question from each module.

Module 1

6. a. Explain with an example how recurrence trees can be used to solve a recurrence
relation. 5 Marks
b. Solve the recurrence 2 / 4 T n( ) + n using methods based on
(i) Substitution (ii) Recursion tree (iii) Master theorem 15 Marks


7. a. Is a randomized algorithm for quicksort more efficient? Explain. 5 Marks
b. Write an algorithm to sort an array in decreasing order using Quicksort. Derive the
worst case running time for his algorithm. 15 Marks

8        9
12     15

4      12
6     11

Module 2

8. a. With examples of your own show how union by rank and path compression heuristics
improve the running time to perform operations on Disjoint Set data structures. 10
b. Why are rotations performed on a Red-Black Tree? Write the Pseudocode to perform a
right rotate operation. Show the running time for the algorithm. 10 Marks


9. a. Why is a minimum degree of 1 disallowed in a B-Tree. Without any formal
pseudocode explain how a new node can added to a B-Tree. Use suitable examples for
clarity wherever necessary. 10 Marks
b. Explain how a node can be added to an AVL-Tree. 10 Marks

Module 3

10. Explain how Prims algorithm successfully finds the minimum spanning tree. Illustrate it’s
working using a suitable example. How does the Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning
tree differ from Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm?
20 Marks


11. a. Demonstrate how Strassen’s matrix multiplication method works by finding the
product of the given matrices:- 10 Marks

b. Does Merge Sort have a best case or worst case? Show the running the time for Merge
Sort. 10 Marks

Module 4

12. a. What does the term “reducibility” mean? When do you say one language is polynomial
time reducible? 4 Marks
b. Explain the 8 Queen Problem. 10 Marks

c. What is the difference between the Travelling Salesperson Problem and Shortest Path Problem?
6 Marks


13. a. Use Dynamic Programming to solve the Matrix Chain Multiplication Problem.
10 Marks
b. What is greedy choice property? Write a solution for fractional knapsack problem
using greedy approach. 10 Marks
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Sunday, April 8, 2018

KTU B.Tech Exams Apr/May 2018 - Rescheduled Time Table is published.

KTU B.Tech Exams Apr/May 2018 - Rescheduled Time Table is published.

Rescheduled Time Table of KTU - B.Tech Examinations, April/May 2018 (including PTDC - Slot-wise) is published herewith.

Image result for download

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