Saturday, December 1, 2018

KTU B.Tech S7 Lecture Notes Refrigeration and Air- Conditioning

KTU B.Tech S7 Lecture Notes Refrigeration and Air- Conditioning

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Module I
Introduction – Brief history and applications of refrigeration.
Thermodynamics of refrigeration- reversed Carnot cycle- heat pump
and refrigeration machines, Limitations of reversed Carnot cycle. Unit
of refrigeration- Air refrigeration systems- Reversed Joule cycle, Air
craft refrigeration systems, simple bootstrap- Regenerative and
reduced ambient system


Module II
Vortex tube refrigeration-Very low temperature refrigeration systems
(concept only). Adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts
Vapour compression systems-simple cycle - representation on T- s
and P- h Diagrams. COP- Effect of operating parameters on COP –
methods of improving COP of simple cycle- super- heating , under
cooling, Liquid suction heat exchanger, actual cycle.



Module III
Multi pressure systems - multi compression and multi evaporator,
systems. Inter cooling - flash inter cooling and flash gas removal-
Different combinations of evaporator and compressor for different
applications, Cascade system
Refrigerants and their properties-Eco-friendly Refrigerants, mixed
refrigerants, selection of refrigerants for different applications
Vapour absorption systems - Ammonia – water system - simple
system- drawbacks-Lithium Bromide water system- Electrolux-
comparison with vapour compression system- steam jet refrigeration.



Module IV
Application of refrigeration- domestic refrigerators- water coolers-
ice plants. Cold storages- food preservation methods- plate freezing ,
quick-freezing.
Refrigeration system components- Compressors, condensers,
expansion devices, evaporators. Cooling towers- Different types and
their application fields- Refrigerant leakage and detection – charging
of refrigerant – system controls.




Module V
Air conditioning – meaning and utility, comfort and industrial air
conditioning. Psychometric properties- saturated and unsaturated air,
dry, wet and dew point temperature – humidity, specific humidity,
absolute humidity, relative humidity and degree of saturation-
thermodynamic equations- enthalpy of moisture- adiabatic saturation
process -psychrometers. Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature,
psychometric chart- Psychometric processes- adiabatic mixing-
sensible heating and cooling- humidifying and dehumidifying, air
washer – bypass factor- sensible heat factor-RSHF and GSHF line-
Design condition- Apparent dew point temperature – Choice of supply
condition, state and mass rate of dehumidified air quantity – Fresh air
supplied –air refrigeration. Comfort air conditioning- factors affecting
human comfort. Effective temperature – comfort chart. Summer air
conditioning- factors affecting-cooling load estimation.



Module VI
Air conditioning systems- room air conditioner- split system-
packaged system-all air system-chilled water system. Winter air
conditioning – factors affecting heating system, humidifiers. Year
round air conditioning AC system controls-thermostat and humidistat.
Air distribution systems- duct system and design- Air conditioning of
restaurants, hospitals, retail outlets, computer center, cinema theatre,
and other place of amusement. Industrial applications of air
conditioning.

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