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*KTU B.Tech S4 Lecture Notes ADVANCED THERMODYNAMICS *

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**MODULE I**

#### Fundamentals concepts–scope and limitations of thermodynamics.

#### Thermodynamic systems– different types of systems – macroscopic and microscopic analysis –

#### continuum – Properties– state – processes. Thermodynamics equilibrium – Equation of state of an ideal gas –Real gas relations

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**MODULE II**

#### Laws of thermodynamics- Zeroth law of thermodynamics – Thermal equilibrium – Concept of temperature – Thermometry –Temperature scales. Work and heat

#### First law of thermodynamics– Concept of energy – First law for closed and open systems – Specific heats – internal energy and enthalpy – Steady flow energy equations – Joule Thompson effect

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**MODULE III**

#### Second law of thermodynamics- Various statements and their equivalence_ Reversible process and reversible cycles- Carnot cycles- Corollaries of the second law.

#### Clausius inequality- Concept of entropy – Calculation of change in entropy in various thermodynamic processes – Reversibility and irreversibility – Available and unavailable energy – Third law of thermodynamics

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**MODULE IV**

#### Thermodynamic relations – Combined first and second law equations

#### Hemholtz and Gibbs functions

#### Maxwell relations

#### Equations for specific heats, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy

#### Clausius-Clapeyron equations

#### applications of thermodynamic relations.

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**MODULE V**

#### Properties of pure substances – PVT, PT and TS diagrams

#### Compressibility factor – Law of corresponding states

#### Mollier diagrams

#### Mixture of gases and vapours- mixture of ideal gases – Dalton’s law – Gibbs law- Thermodynamic properties of mixtures-Numerical problems using steam tables

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